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:: Volume 21, Issue 1 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2018) ::
Iran South Med J 2018, 21(1): 40-53 Back to browse issues page
The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Visual Learning, Memory and Anatomical Structures of the Brain in Male Rhesus Monkeys
Elahe Tekieh 1, Masomeh Kazemi 1, Hasan Tavakoli 1, Mehdi Saberi 2, Hosean Ghanaati 3, Mostafa Hajinasrollah 4, Maryam Salehi 1, Hamed Aliyary 5, Hedayat Sahraei * 6
1- Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of pharmacy, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3- Department of Radiology Medical Imaging Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4- Animal core facility, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
5- Department of Electrical, Biomedical and Mechatronics Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran.
6- Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , hsahrei1343@gmail.com
Abstract:   (1076 Views)
Background: Humans in modern societies are exposed to substantially elevated levels of electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions with different frequencies. The neurobiological effects of EMF have been the subject of debate and intensive research over the past few decades. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of EMF on visual learning and anatomical dimensions of the hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA) in male Rhesus monkeys.
Materials and Methods: In this study, four rhesus monkeys of Macaca mulatta species were irradiated by 0.7 microtesla ELF-EMF either at 5 or 30 Hz, 4 h a day, for 30 days. Alterations in visual learning and memory were assessed before and after irradiation phase by using a box designed for challenging animals for gaining rewards. Furthermore, the monkeys’ brains were scanned by MRI technique one week before and one week after irradiation. The monkeys were anesthetized by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10–20 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.2–0.4 mg/kg), and scanned with a 3-Tesla Magnetom, in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using T2 weighted protocol with a slice thickness of 3 mm. The anatomical changes of hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA) were measured by volumetric study.
Results: Electromagnetic field exposure at a frequency of 30 Hz reduced the number of correct responses in the learning process and delayed memory formation in the two tested monkeys. Meanwhile, ELF-EMF at 5 Hz had no effect on the visual learning and memory changes. No anatomical changes were observed in the prefrontal area and the hippocampus at both frequencies. 
Conclusion: ELF-EMF irradiation at 30 Hz adversely affected visual learning and memory, probably through factors other than changes in brain structure and anatomy.
Keywords: electromagnetic field, hippocampus, prefrontal area, macaca mulatta monkey, visual learning
Full-Text [PDF 1108 kb]   (318 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Nervous System
Received: 2018/02/26 | Accepted: 2018/02/26 | Published: 2018/02/26
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Tekieh E, Kazemi M, Tavakoli H, Saberi M, Ghanaati H, Hajinasrollah M, et al . The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Visual Learning, Memory and Anatomical Structures of the Brain in Male Rhesus Monkeys . Iran South Med J. 2018; 21 (1) :40-53
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-913-en.html


Volume 21, Issue 1 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2018) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

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