[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 24, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2021) ::
Iran South Med J 2021, 24(4): 242-264 Back to browse issues page
Marine Biobank: From Protection of Genetic Resources to Biomedical Entrepreneurship
Toba Zendehboudi1 , Ali Reza Afshar1, Arezo Khoradmehr1, Hossein Azari1, Mojtaba Farjam2, Amin Tamadon 3
1- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
2- Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa, Iran
3- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , amintamaddon@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (294 Views)
Background Marine biological resources and their creatures are one of the major parts of marine biomass. Marine biological resources are important for regular genetic research and isolation and extraction of biological materials from the marine organisms which have the potential for commercial development and employment in the coastal areas. Marine Biobank, in addition to setting up a joint venture, will co-ordinate the measurments for protection of marine biodiversity and marine biotechnological applications at universities by: a) Setting up technological tools and common practices to keep records of marine biological resources in the whole phylogenetic tree of life. B) Applying the best practices and guidelines for storing and recording information in the MBI series to ensure compliance with the regulatory framework and regulations regarding access and sharing of data on the use of marine bio resources for research, commercial and academic aims C) Developing an innovative platform for national and legal users at national level and producing a set of guidelines for the use of marine biological resources for innovative purposes. The Marine Biobank will ultimately facilitate sustainable access to the marine biodiversity, related data and extractable products for academic researchers and users in the industry. In this article, an attempt has been made to discuss the formation, importance and application of marine biobanks.
Keywords: Marine Biobank, Biological specimen, Entrepreneurship, Biomedicine
Full-Text [PDF 691 kb]   (94 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Case Report | Subject: General
Received: 2021/04/6 | Accepted: 2021/08/8 | Published: 2021/10/30
1. Hewitt R, Watson P. Defining Biobank. Biopreserv Biobank 2013; 11(5): 309-15.
2. Comizzoli P. Biobanking And Fertility Preservation For Rare And Endangered Species. Anim Reprod 2018; 14(1): 30-3.
3. Elger BS, Caplan AL. Consent And Anonymization In Research Involving Biobanks: Differing Terms And Norms Present Serious Barriers To An International Framework. EMBO Rep 2006; 7(7): 661-6.
4. Flesia C. Research Priorities And Their Impact On The National Innovation System. In: Andersson T, Djeflat A, editors. The Real Issues Of The Middle East And The Arab Spring. New York: Springer, 2013, 299-313.
5. Müller H, Dagher G, Loibner M, et al. Biobanks For Life Sciences And Personalized Medicine: Importance Of Standardization, Biosafety, Biosecurity, And Data Management. Curr Opin Biotechnol 2020; 65: 45-51.
6. Debburman SK. Learning How Scientists Work: Experiential Research Projects To Promote Cell Biology Learning And Scientific Process Skills. Cell Biol Educ 2002; 1(4): 154-72.
7. Kinkorová J. Biobanks In The Era Of Personalized Medicine: Objectives, Challenges, And Innovation. EPMA J 2016; 7(1): 4.
8. Vaught J, Rogers J, Carolin T, et al. Biobankonomics: Developing A Sustainable Business Model Approach For The Formation Of A Human Tissue Biobank.J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2011; 2011(42): 24-31.
9. Coppola L, Cianflone A, Grimaldi AM, et al. Biobanking In Health Care: Evolution And Future Directions. J Transl Med 2019; 17(1): 172.
10. De Paoli P. Bio-banking In Microbiology: From Sample Collection To Epidemiology, Diagnosis And Research. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2005; 29(5): 897-910.
11. Pukkala E. Biobanks And Registers In Epidemiologic Research On Cancer. In: Dillner J, editors. Methods In Biobanking. 1 st ed. United States: Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, Springer Science+Business Media, 2011, 127-64.
12. Gee S, Oliver R, Corfield J, et al. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis And Review.Biopreserv Biobank 2015; 13(6): 435-51.
13. Sherkat R, Rostami S, Yaran M, et al. Establishment And Development Of The First Biobank Of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Suspected To Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases In Iran. Adv Biomed Res 2018; 7: 45.
14. Khodakarami Z, Pourakpour F, Siahlou B, et al. Making EEG Experiments Retrievable For Research Purpose: The Preliminary Experience Of Standardization Of EEG Data In Iranian Brain Mapping Biobank. Iran J Radiol 2019; 16(Special Issue): e99163.
15. Vaught J, Kelly A, Hewitt R. A Review Of International Biobanks And Networks: Success Factors And Key Benchmarks. Biopreserv Biobank 2009; 7(3): 143-50.
16. Anisimov SV, Meshkov AN, Glotov AS, et al. National Association Of Biobanks And Biobanking Specialists: New Community For Promoting Biobanking Ideas And Projects In Russia. Biopreserv Biobank 2021; 19(1): 73-82.
17. Kim SK. Marine OMICS: Principles And Applications. Florida: CRC Press, 2016, 3-7.
18. Pascual S, Abollo E, González AF. Biobanking And Genetic Markers For ParasitesIn Fish Stock Studies. Fish Res 2016; 173: 214-20.
19. Rotander A, Van Bavel B, Polder A, et al. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) In Marine Mammals From Arctic And North Atlantic Regions, 1986–2009. Environ Int 2012; 40: 102-9.
20. Mateos J, Carneiro I, Corrales F, et al. Multicentric Study Of The Effect Of PreAnalytical Variables In The Quality Of Plasma Samples Stored In Biobanks Using Different Complementary Proteomic Methods. J Proteomics 2017; 150: 109-20.
21. González ÁF, Rodríguez H, Outeiriño L, et al. A Biobanking Platform For Fish-Borne Zoonotic Parasites: A Traceable System To Preserve Samples, Data And Money. Fish Res 2018; 202: 29-37.
22. Comizzoli P, Wildt DE. Cryobanking Biomaterials From Wild Animal Species To Conserve Genes And Biodiversity: Relevance To Human Biobanking And Biomedical Research. In: Hainaut P, Vaught J, Zatloukal K, Pasterk M, editors. Biobanking Of Human Biospecimens. Springer, Cham, 2017, 217-35.
23. Della Togna G, Howell LG, Clulow J, et al. Evaluating Amphibian Biobanking And Reproduction For Captive Breeding Programs According To The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan Objectives. Theriogenology 2020; 150: 412-31.
24. Conte M, Fontana E, Nebbioso A, et al. Marine-Derived Secondary Metabolites As Promising Epigenetic Bio-Compounds For Anticancer Therapy. Mar Drugs 2021; 19(1): 15.
25. Kingston DGI. Modern Natural Products Drug Discovery And Its Relevance To Biodiversity Conservation. J Nat Prod 2011; 74(3): 496-511.
26. Williams W, Chilton A, Schneemilch M, et al. Microbial Biobanking–Cyanobacteria-Rich Topsoil Facilitates Mine Rehabilitation. Biogeosciences 2019; 16(10): 2189-204.
27. Humphries F, Gottlieb HM, Laird S, et al. A Tiered Approach To The Marine Genetic Resource Governance Framework Under The Proposed UNCLOS Agreement For Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ). Mar Policy 2020; 122: 103910.
28. Somers T, Hollinger GA. Human–Robot Planning And Learning For Marine Data Collection. Auton Robot 2016; 40: 1123-37.
29. Narita A, Ueki M, Tamiya G. Artificial Intelligence Powered Statistical Genetics In Biobanks. J Hum Genet 2021; 66: 61-5.
30. Mitchell R, Waldby C. National Biobanks: Clinical Labor, Risk Production, And The Creation Of Biovalue. Sci Technol Human Values 2010; 35(3): 330-55.
31. Kurtböke İ, Meyer W, Sly L. Sustainable Use And Preservation Of Biological Resources. Microbiol Aust 2019; 40(3): 100-2.
32. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Biological Collections: Ensuring Critical Research And Education For The 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2020, 85-112.
33. Jupiter S, Mangubhai S, Kingsford RT. Conservation Of Biodiversity In The Pacific Islands Of Oceania: Challenges And Opportunities. Pac Conserv Biol 2014; 20(2): 206-20.
34. Guilloux B. Marine Genetic Resources, R&D And The Law 1: Complex Objects Of Use. New Jersey: ISTE Ltd, 2018, 75-116.
35. Collins JE, Vanagt T, Huys I, et al. Marine Bioresource Development–Stakeholder’s Challenges, Implementable Actions, And Business Models. Front Mar Sci 2020; 7: 62.
36. Malm J, Fehniger TE, Danmyr P, et al. Developments In Biobanking Workflow Standardization Providing Sample Integrity And Stability. J Proteomics 2013; 95: 38-45.
37. Lapatas V, Stefanidakis M, Jimenez RC, et al. Data Integration In Biological Research: An Overview. J Biol Res Thessaloniki 2015; 22: 9.
38. Ferdyn K, Gleńska-Olender J, Witoń M, et al. Quality Management System In The BBMRI. Pl Consortium: Status Before The Formation Of The Polish Biobanking Network. Biopreserv Biobank 2019; 17(5): 401-9.
39. Bubela T, Guebert J, Mishra A. Use And Misuse Of Material Transfer Agreements: Lessons In Proportionality From Research, Repositories, And Litigation. PLoS Biol 2015; 13(2): e1002060.
40. Rabone M, Harden-Davies H, CollinsJE, et al. Access To Marine Genetic Resources (MGR): Raising Awareness Of Best-Practice Through A New Agreement For Biodiversity Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ). Front Mar Sci 2019; 6: 520.
41. Muller-Karger FE, Miloslavich P, Bax NJ, et al. Advancing Marine Biological Observations And Data Requirements Of The Complementary Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) And Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) Frameworks. Front Mar Sci 2018; 5: 211.
42. Mayfield AB, Tsai S, Lin C. The Coral Hospital. Biopreserv Biobank 2019; 17(4): 355-69.
43. Frouin H, Jackman P, Dangerfield ND, et al. Effects Of Feeding Strategy, Sediment Characteristics, And Chemical Properties On Polychlorinated Biphenyl And Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Bioaccumulation From Marine Sediments In Two Invertebrates. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017; 73(2): 256-69.
44. González-Fernández JE. Evaluation Of Scientific Collections: A Model Case, The Iberian-Balearic Amphibians Preserved In The Natural History Collections. 2011.
45. Baker M. Building Better Biobanks. Nature 2012; 486(7401): 141-6.
46. Baber R, Kiehntopf M. Automation In Biobanking From A Laboratory Medicine Perspective. J Lab Med 2019; 43(6): 329-38.
47. Malm J, Lindberg H, Erlinge D, et al. Semi-Automated Biobank Sample Processing With A 384 High Density Sample Tube Robot Used In Cancer And Cardiovascular Studies. Clin Transl Med 2015; 4(1): 27.
48. Abdaljaleel M, Singer EJ, Yong WH. Sustainability In Biobanking. In: Yong WH, eds. Biobanking. 1 st ed. New Jersey: Humana Press, 2019, 1-6.
49. Ahmed FE. Biobanking Perspective On Challenges In Sample Handling, Collection, Processing, Storage, Analysis And Retrieval For Genomics, Transcriptomics And Proteomics Data. Anal Methods 2011; 3(5): 1029-38.
50. Muller R, Betsou F, Barnes MG, et al. Preservation Of Biospecimens At Ambient Temperature: Special Focus On Nucleic Acids And Opportunities For The Biobanking Community. Biopreserv Biobank 2016; 14(2): 89-98.
51. Holland NT, Smith MT, Eskenazi B, et al. Biological Sample Collection And Processing For Molecular Epidemiological Studies. Mutat Res 2003; 543(3): 217-34.
52. Tan SC, Yiap BC. DNA, RNA, And Protein Extraction: The Past And The Present. J Biomed Biotechnol 2009; 2009: 574398.
53. Lehmann S, Guadagni F, Moore H, et al. Standard Preanalytical Coding For Biospecimens: Review And Implementation Of The Sample Preanalytical Code (SPREC). Biopreserv Biobank 2012; 10(4): 366-74.
54. Huang LH, Lin PH, Tsai KW, et al. The Effects Of Storage Temperature And Duration Of Blood Samples On DNA And RNA Qualities. PLoS One 2017; 12(9): e0184692.
55. Rajendram D, Ayenza R, Holder FM, et al. Long-Term Storage And Safe Retrieval Of DNA From Microorganisms For Molecular Analysis Using FTA Matrix Cards. J Microbiol Methods 2006; 67(3): 582-92.
56. Boroda AV. Marine Mammal Cell Cultures: To Obtain, To Apply, And To Preserve. Mar Environ Res 2017; 129: 316-28.
57. Odintsova NA, Boroda AV. Cryopreservation Of The Cells And Larvae Of Marine Organisms. Russ J Mar Biol 2012; 38: 101-11.
58. Fournie JW, Krol RM, Hawkins WE. Fixation Of Fish Tissues. In: Ostrander G, eds. The Laboratory Fish. 1 st ed. United States: Academic Press, Elsevier, 2000, 569-78.
59. Tucker Jr JW, Chester AJ. Effects Of Salinity, Formalin Concentration And Buffer On Quality Of Preservation Of Southern Flounder (Paralichthys Lethostigma) Larvae. Copeia 1984; 1984(4): 981-8.
60. Wilson R, Victoria M. Marine Invertebrate Sample Processing Procedures. 2005, 1-25.
61. Schiaparelli S, Schnabel KE, De Forges BR, et al. Sorting, Recording, Preservation And Storage Of Biological Samples. In: Clark MR, Consalvey M, Rowden AA, eds. Biological Sampling In The Deep Sea. 1 st ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016, 338-67.
62. Warmington AR, Wilkinson JM, Riley CB. Evaluation Of Ethanol-Based Fixatives As A Substitute For Formalin In Diagnostic Clinical Laboratories. J Histotechnol 2000; 23(4): 299-308.
63. Srinivasan M, Sedmak D, Jewell S. Effect Of Fixatives And Tissue Processing On The Content And Integrity Of Nucleic Acids. Am J Pathol 2002; 161(6): 1961-71.
64. Buesa RJ. Histology Without Formalin?. Ann Diagn Pathol 2008; 12(6): 387-96.
65. Moelans CB, Oostenrijk D, Moons MJ, et al. Formaldehyde Substitute Fixatives: Effects On Nucleic Acid Preservation. J Clin Pathol 2011; 64(11): 960-7.
66. Vielkind U, Swierenga SH. A Simple Fixation Procedure For Immunofluorescent Detection Of Different Cytoskeletal Components Within The Same Cell. Histochemistry 1989; 91(1): 81-8.
67. Stanta G, Mucelli SP, Petrera F, et al. A Novel Fixative Improves Opportunities Of Nucleic Acids And Proteomic Analysis In Human Archive's Tissues. Diagn Mol Pathol 2006; 15(2): 115-23.
68. Bostwick DG, Al Annouf N, Choi C. Establishment Of The Formalin-Free Surgical Pathology Laboratory. Utility Of An Alcohol-Based Fixative. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1994; 118(3): 298-302.
69. Noguchi M, Furuya JS, Takeuchi T, et al. Modified Formalin And Methanol Fixation Methods For Molecular Biological And Morphological Analyses. Pathol Int 1997; 47(10): 685-91.
70. Gillespie JW, Best CJM, Bichsel VE, et al. Evaluation Of Non-Formalin Tissue Fixation For Molecular Profiling Studies. Am J Pathol 2002; 160(2): 449-57.
71. Haque Z, Rahman MA, Khan MZ, et al. Alcohol-Based Fixatives Can Better Preserve Tissue Morphology Than Formalin. Int J Morphol 2020; 38(5): 1371-5.
72. Horobin RW. Histochemistry: An Explanatory Outline Of Histochemistry And Biophysical Staining. United Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1982, 21-4.
73. Mason JT, O'leary TJ. Effects Of Formaldehyde Fixation On Protein Secondary Structure: A Calorimetric And Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation. J Histochem Cytochem 1991; 39(2): 225-9.
74. Croat TB. Use Of A Portable Propane Gas Oven For Field Drying Plants. Taxon 1979; 28(5/6): 573-80.
75. Khadhair AH, Momani F, Hiruki C. Molecular Stability Of Clover Proliferation Phytoplasma DNA In Periwinkle Plant Tissues After Thermal Treatment Under Microwave Conditions. Proceed Jpn Acad Series B 1995; 71(8): 265-8.
76. Chase MW, Hills HH. Silica Gel: An Ideal Material For Field Preservation Of Leaf Samples For DNA Studies. Taxon 1991; 40(2): 215-20.
77. Hanlin RT. Preservation Of Fungi By Freeze-Drying. Bull Torrey Bot Club 1972; 99(1): 23-7.
78. Bolster P. Preserving Flowers With Silica Gel. Publ Can Dep Agric. 1978.
79. Liston A, Rieseberg LH, Adams RP, et al. A Method For Collecting Dried Plant Specimens For DNA And Isozyme Analyses, And The Results Of A Field Test In Xinjiang, China. Ann Miss Bot Gard 1990; 77(4): 859-63.
80. Mellor JD. Fundamentals Of Freeze-Drying. London: Academic Pr, 1978, 1-386.
81. Seutin G, White BN, Boag PT. Preservation Of Avian Blood And Tissue Samples For DNA Analyses. Can J Zool 1991; 69(1): 82-90.
82. Babel M, Mamilos A, Seitz S, et al. Compared DNA And RNA Quality Of Breast Cancer Biobanking Samples After Long-Term Storage Protocols In− 80° C And Liquid Nitrogen. Sci Rep 2020; 10: 14404.
83. Guo N, Wei Q, Xu Y. Optimization Of Cryopreservation Of Pathogenic Microbial Strains. J Biosafe Biosecur 2020; 2(2): 66-70.
84. Van Niekerk J. Enhancing Biorepository Sample Integrity With Automated Storage And Retrieval. 1 st ed. Management Of Chemical And Biological Samples For Screening Applications. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2012, 221-42.
85. Weng L. Technologies And Applications Toward Preservation Of Cells In A Dry State For Therapies. Biopreserv Biobank 2021 Jan. Available from: URL: doi.org/10.1089/bio.2020.0130
86. Mendy M, Caboux E, Lawlor RT, et al. Common Minimum Technical Standards And Protocols For Biobanks Dedicated To Cancer Research. Lyon, France: International Agency For Research On Cancer, 2017, 1-62.
87. Galvagni M, Cotrupi S, Barbareschi M. Biobanks And Information Technology. Pathologica 2008; 100(2): 116-38.
88. Parry-Jones A, Hansen J, Simeon-Dubach D, et al. Crisis Management For Biobanks. Biopreserv Biobank 2017; 15(3): 253-63.
89. Specimencentral. Global Biobank Directory, Tissue Banks and Biorepositories 2020. (Accessed May 10, 2020, at Https://Specimencentral.Com/Biobank-Directory/#Animal%20&%20Plant%20Biobanks)
90. Gabrielsen KL. Marbank–A Biobank Of Arctic Marine Organisms. Planta Med 2012; 78(11): PL18.
91. Paredes E, Ward A, Probert I, et al. Cryopreservation Of Algae. Cryopreservation And Freeze-Drying Protocols. 4 th ed. Springer US, 2021, 607-21.
92. Lillestolen TI, Foster N, Wise SA. Development Of The National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank. Sci Total Environ 1993; 139-140: 97-107.
93. Pugh RS, Ellisor MB, Moors AJ, et al. National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank 2007-2008. NISTIR 7675, 2010, 5-49.
94. Wilson BAP, Thornburg CC, Henrich CJ, et al. Creating And Screening Natural Product Libraries. Nat Prod Rep 2020; 37(7): 893-918.
95. Nieto Delgado AM. P-51.Economic And Financial Analysis And Comparison Between Two Companies In The Pharmaceutical Industry, Pharma Mar SA and Grifols SA. 2019, 1-58.
96. Goto T. Examination Of Different Preservatives For Todarodes Pacificus Paralarvae Fixed With Borax-Buffered Formalin-Seawater Solution. Phuket Mar Biol Center Res Bull 2005; 66: 213-9.
97. Moore MN, Lowe D, Soverchia C, et al. Uptake Of A Non-Calorific, Edible Sucrose Polyester Oil And Olive Oil By Marine Mussels And Their Influence On Uptake And Effects Of Anthracene. Aquat Toxicol 1997; 39(3-4): 307-20.
98. Tyler PA, Reeves S, Peck L, et al. Seasonal Variation In The Gametogenic Ecology Of The Antarctic Scallop Adamussium Colbecki. Polar Biol 2003; 26: 727-33.
99. Swain TD. Isozoanthus Antumbrosus, A New Species Of Zoanthid (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Zoanthidea) Symbiotic With Hydrozoa From The Caribbean, With A Key To Hydroid And Sponge-Symbiotic Zoanthid Species. Zootaxa 2009; 2051(1): 41-8.
100. Costa PM, Costa MH. Development And Application Of A Novel Histological Multichrome Technique For Clam Histopathology. J Invertebr Pathol 2012; 110(3): 411-4.
101. Fogg-Matarese S, Horowitz DB, Kass-Simon G. An Evaluation Of Three Conventional Histological Techniques For Staining The Cerata Of Cratena Pilata. J Histotechnol 2001; 24(4): 255-8.
102. Mohammadi J, Mirzaie A, Azizi A, et al. The Effects Of Hydroalcoholic Extract Of Juglans Regia Leaf On Histological Changes Of Langerhans Islet In Diabetic Rats Model. Iran South Med J 2012; 15(4): 293-302. (Persian)
103. Costa PM, Carreira S, Costa MH, et al. Development Of Histopathological Indices In A Commercial Marine Bivalve (Ruditapes Decussatus) To Determine Environmental Quality. Aquat Toxicol 2013; 126: 442-54.
104. Fuller EG, Owczarzak A. Esterases, Phosphatases, And Glycogen In The Antennal Gland Of Pacifastacus Leniusculus Stimpson. Biol Bull 1967; 133(3): 539-47.
105. Chapple WD. Motoneurons Innervating The Dorsal Superficial Muscles Of The Hermit Crab, Pagurus Pollicarus, And Their Reflex Asymmetry. J Comp Physiol 1977; 121: 413-31.
106. Fonseca G, Fehlauer‐Ale KH. Three In One: Fixing Marine Nematodes For Ecological, Molecular, And Morphological Studies. Limnol Oceanogr-Meth 2012; 10(7): 516-23.
107. Marlowe RL, Dillaman RM. Acridine Orange Staining Of Decapod Crustacean Cuticle. Invertebr Biol 1995; 114(1): 79-82.
108. Deland C, Cameron CB, Rao KP, et al. A Taxonomic Revision Of The Family Harrimaniidae (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) With Descriptions Of Seven Species From The Eastern Pacific. Zootaxa 2010; 2408(1): 1-30.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zendehboudi T, Afshar A R, Khoradmehr A, Azari H, Farjam M, Tamadon A. Marine Biobank: From Protection of Genetic Resources to Biomedical Entrepreneurship. Iran South Med J. 2021; 24 (4) :242-264
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1500-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 24, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2021) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

Iranian South Medical Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read,
copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Copyright © 2017, Iranian South Medical Journal| All Rights Reserved

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4374