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توکسینولوژی کرم‌های زهرآگین دریایی؛ یک مقاله مروری
غلامحسین محبی1 ، عمار مریم‌آبادی1، ایرج نبی‌پور 2
1- مرکز تحقیقات زیست فناوری دریایی خلیج فارس، پژوهشکده‌ علوم زیست پزشکی خلیج‌فارس، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران
2- مرکز تحقیقات زیست فناوری دریایی خلیج فارس، پژوهشکده‌ علوم زیست پزشکی خلیج‌فارس، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران ، Inabipour@gmail.com
چکیده:   (261 مشاهده)
با وجود توزیع گسترده کرم‌های زهرآگین دریایی در سراسر گیتی، اما مطالعات ساختاری و توکسینولوژی زهر آن‌ها، هنوز محدود است. این مطالعه با هدف بررسی سمیت کرم‌های دریایی زهراگین انجام گردید. تماس با تارهای کرم‌های دریایی کلویه فلاوا و سیپونکولا، موجب التهاب دردناک پوست می‌گردند. بسیاری از گونه‌های نمرتین‌ها، با یک پروبوسیس منعطف و موکوس غلیظی در سطح پوست خود، قربانی خود را شکار می‌کنند. آن‌ها اخیراً، به سه گروه پالئونمرتا، پیلیدیوفورا و هاپلونمرتئا، طبقه‌بندی گردیده‌اند. توکسین‌های آن‌ها شامل سه گروه اصلی پپتیدها، آلکالوئیدهای پیریدینی و تترادوتوکسین و مشتقات آن‌ها هستند. ترکیب نیکوتینوئیدی آمفیپورین، آنابازئین و مشتقات آن، نمرتلین و آنابازین، از توکسین‌های آلکالوئیدی هستند. آن‌ها به‌طور انتخابی گیرنده‌های نیکوتینی، به ویژه گیرنده‌های نوع α-7 را تحریک می‌نمایند. نمرتین‌ها، انواع توکسین‌های پپتیدی را تولید می‌نمایند. برجسته‌ترین فعالیت "سربراتولوس توکسین‌های" A-I تا A-IV، فعالیت همولیتیک می‌باشد. سیتوتوکسین A-III، با تشکیل فرم‌های تترامری در غشاء بسیاری از سلول‌های مختلف و ایجاد منافذ بزرگ، آن‌ها را بسیار نفوذپذیر می‌کند. توکسین، در غلظت‌های زیر لیزکنندگی، موجب مهار پروتئین­کیناز C و کانال‌های سدیمی و کلسیمی انتخابی کاتیونی دریچه ولتاژ در سیستم‌های عصبی و قلبی- عروقی می‌گردد. از چهار پروتئین اصلی "سربراتولوس توکسین‌های B-IV-B-I"، به نظر می­رسد که توکسین B-II، سمی­ترین ترکیب باشد. سنجش عصاره لینیوس نشان داد که آن‌ها در واقع زهری­تر از عصاره­های سربراتولوس هستند. آلفا و بتا- نمرتیدها، به‌ترتیب مربوط به خانواده سه و شش کیلو دالتونی نوروتوکسین­ها هستند. نمرتید α-1، یک توکسین بی­نهایت قدرتمند در برابر کانال سدیمی دریچه ولتاژ (VGSC می­باشد. ژن توکسین­های فراوانی در ژنوم و ترانسکریپتوم­های نمرتین­ها پیش­بینی یا کشف شده­اند. از برجسته­ترین ژن توکسین­ها، توالی پلانسیتوکسین-1، پپتید استیکوداکتیلا توکسین (Shk toxin)، اس ای- سفالوتوکسین، توکسین تشکیل‌دهنده منفذ β آئرولیزین و چندین توالی مرتبط با نوروتوکسین نظیر دلتا اکتیتوکسین-Amc1a، پریویتلین -2، مو-ترافتوکسین-Hhn2a 4 و توریپپتید Gsg9.2، توالی‌های مختلف آلفا- و بتا- نمرتید (آنالوگ‌های B- نوروتوکسین) و پاربورلیزین بودند. به احتمال زیاد، پاربورلیزین‌ها به همان خانواده سیتوتوکسین­های AI تا AIV تعلق دارند. مطالعه بر روی توکسین‌های این زیستمندان دریایی، می‌تواند پروب‌های مفیدی را برای بررسی گیرنده‌ها، کانال‌های یونی و حتی مکانیسم‌های ایمنی ذاتی نسبت به ویروس‌های عفونی، انگل‌ها و سایر میکروب‌‌ها فراهم نماید.
واژه‌های کلیدی: کرم دریایی، توکسین، پپتیدها، آلکالوئیدهای پیریدینی، تترادوتوکسین، توکسین ژن
متن کامل [PDF 1969 kb]   (112 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: مروری | موضوع مقاله: عمومى
دریافت: 1399/1/18 | پذیرش: 1399/2/20 | انتشار: 1399/7/9
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Mohebbi G H, Maryamabadi A, Nabipour I. Toxinology of Venomous Marine Worms; A Review. Iran South Med J. 2020; 23 (4) :371-430
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1334-fa.html

محبی غلامحسین، مریم‌آبادی عمار، نبی‌پور ایرج. توکسینولوژی کرم‌های زهرآگین دریایی؛ یک مقاله مروری. طب جنوب. 1399; 23 (4) :371-430

URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1334-fa.html



دوره 23، شماره 4 - ( دوماهنامه طب جنوب 1399 ) برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

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