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توکسینولوژی سرپایان: یک مقاله مروری
غلامحسین محبی1 ، عمار مریم‌آبادی 2
1- مرکز تحقیقات زیست فناوری دریایی‌ خلیج‌فارس، پژوهشکده علوم زیست پزشکی خلیج‌فارس، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران
2- مرکز تحقیقات زیست فناوری دریایی‌ خلیج‌فارس، پژوهشکده علوم زیست پزشکی خلیج‌فارس، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، بوشهر، ایران ، ammar@pgu.ac.ir
چکیده:   (125 مشاهده)
اغلب سرپایان موجودات زهرآگینی هستند که عمده‌ترین ترکیبات یافت شده در زهر آن‌ها شامل توکسین­های پروتئینی، مولکول­های کوچک زهری، آنزیم­ها و آمین­ها می­باشد. سفالوتوکسین­های نوروتوکسیک، توکسین­های پروتئینی هستند که نخستین بار از این گروه استخراج گردیده‌اند. آن‌ها به SE- سفالوتوکسین، آلفا- سفالوتوکسین و بتا- سفالوتوکسین تقسیم‌بندی می‌شوند. ترکیب SE- سفالوتوکسین، حدود هزار بار از دیگر اعضای خانواده زهری‌تر است. در میان مولکول­های کوچک زهری، می­توان به تترودوتوکسین و تاکی‌کینین­ها اشاره نمود. تاکی‌کینین­های بزاق سرپایان، می­توانند موجب افت شدید فشار خون و انقباض عضلات گوارشی در مهره­داران گردند. مشتقات پپتیدی تاکی‌کینین‌های موجود در مغز سرپایان، اثرات سمیت بیشتری نسبت به تاکی­کینین­های ساده دارند. کیتینازها، فسفولیپازها و استیل­کولین استراز از مهم‌ترین اجزاء جدایی‌ناپذیر ونوم‌های سرپایان هستند. فسفولیپاز A2، در متابولیسم چربی­ها، در پیشرفت برخی بیماری­ها و ایجاد اثرات نوروتوکسیک و میوتوکسیک زهر نقش بسزایی دارد. استیل­کولین‌استراز، موجب مهار تحریک گیرنده‌های موسکارینی می‌گردد. علاوه‌بر اپی‌نفرین، نوراپی نفرین، دوپامین، سروتونین و هیستامین، یکی از آمین‌هایی که با غلظت زیاد در غده بزاقی اختاپوس‌ها یافت گردیده، اکتاپامین است. مرکب‌های بسیاری از گونه­های سرپایان حاوی مقادیر قابل توجهی از ملانین است که علاوه­بر کاربردهای بیوتکنولوژی، دارای اثرات ضد قارچی، ضد باکتریایی و ضدسرطانی می­باشند. گویچه‌های نامحلول سامانه پیچیده پوستی سرپایان، حاوی پروتئین‌هایی به نام رفلکتین هستند که مسئول ایجاد طیف گسترده‌ای از رنگ‌ها در آن‌ها است. رفلکتین‌ها به‌صورت اختصاصی تنها در سرپایان یافت شده‌اند. در واقع، مطالعات موجود توکسینولوژی و بیوتکنولوژی زهر این زیست‌مندان دریایی متناسب با تنوع و نیز ترکیبات منحصربفرد آن‌ها نمی‌باشد و برای موفقیت در این حوزه، می‌بایست تلاش­های بیشتری انجام گردد.
واژه‌های کلیدی: سرپایان، سفالوتوکسین‌ها، تترادوتوکسین، اکتاپامین، ملانین، رفلکتین
متن کامل [PDF 1721 kb]   (52 دریافت)    
نوع مطالعه: مروری | موضوع مقاله: داروشناسی
دریافت: 1400/3/10 | پذیرش: 1400/8/13 | انتشار: 1400/8/8
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Mohebbi H, Maryamabadi A. Toxinology of Cephalopods: A Review Article. Iran South Med J. 2021; 24 (4) :265-299
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1501-fa.html

محبی غلامحسین، مریم‌آبادی عمار. توکسینولوژی سرپایان: یک مقاله مروری. طب جنوب. 1400; 24 (4) :299-265

URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1501-fa.html



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