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:: Volume 17, Issue 3 (Iranian South Medical journal 2014) ::
Iran South Med J 2014, 17(3): 451-475 Back to browse issues page
Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review
Gholam Hossein Mohebbi 1, Iraj Nabipour2, Amir Vazirizadeh3
1- Department of Marine Toxinology, the Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sceince, Bushehr, IRAN , mohebbihsn@yahoo.com
2- Department of Marine Toxinology, the Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, the Persian Gulf Biomedical Research Center, Bushehr University of Medical Sceince, Bushehr, IRAN
3- Department of Marine Biotechnology, The Persian Gulf Research and Studies Center, The Persian Gulf University, ,Bushehr, IRAN
Abstract:   (8611 Views)

Background: Marine neurotoxins as of Marine biotoxins are natural toxins that produced mainly by dinoflagellates, diatoms and several species of invertebrates and fish. Marine poisoning results from the ingestion of marine animals contain these toxins and causes considerable adverse effects. Materials and methods: This review provides some facts about the structures of marine neurotoxins, their molecular target and pharmacology, analytical methods for their detection and quantitation, diagnosis and laboratory testing, clinical manifestations, as well as prevention and treatment, if were obtainable. Furthermore, we focus on marine poisoning and various associated neurological syndromes like ciguatera, tetrodotoxin poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, after ingestion of the common marine toxins. Results: A number of neurotoxins that prescribed according to their potency (LD50) are: Maitotoxin, Ciguatoxins and Palytoxin, Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, Brevetoxins, Azaspiracid, Yessotoxin, Cooliatoxin, Domoic acid and Conotoxins, Respectively. The primary target of most marine neurotoxins is voltage gated sodium channels and the resulting block of ion conductance through these channels. Moreover, these compounds interact with voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels and modulate the flux of stated ions into many cell types. As well, the target recognized for palytoxin is the Na+- K+ /ATPase. Conclusion: Results of reviewed studies revealed that, the Ciguatera is the commonest syndrome of marine poisoning, but is rarely lethal. Puffer fish poisoning results from the ingestion of fish containing tetrodotoxin and paralytic shellfish poisoning are less common, but have a higher fatality rate than ciguatera. Despite their high toxicity, no much research has been done on some of the toxins, like maitotoxin. In addition, there have remained unknown the pharmacological effects, mechanism of action and molecular target of some toxins such as Cooliatoxin and Ostreotoxins, Which could be the subject of the research in Future, or perhaps a new generation of drugs.

Keywords: Marine neurotoxins, Neurotoxic syndromes, Voltage gated channels, Clinical manifestations.
Full-Text [PDF 1244 kb]   (1280 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: General
Received: 2014/06/15 | Accepted: 2014/06/15 | Published: 2014/06/15
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Mohebbi G H, Nabipour I, Vazirizadeh A. Neurotoxic Syndromes in Marine Poisonings a Review. Iran South Med J. 2014; 17 (3) :451-475
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-558-en.html


Volume 17, Issue 3 (Iranian South Medical journal 2014) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

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