[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 22, Issue 6 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2020) ::
Iran South Med J 2020, 22(6): 402-414 Back to browse issues page
Effect of Household Water Treatment on the Concentration of Heavy Metals of Drinking Water in Ahvaz City
Mohammad Velayatzadeh 1, Khoshnaz Payandeh2
1- Department of Industrial Safety, School of Engineering, Caspian Institute of Higher Education, Qazvin, Iran , mv.5908@gmail.com
2- Department of Soil Science, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran
Abstract:   (697 Views)
Background: Some metals play an important role in  biological reactions  and metabolism of human body. Low and high concentrations of these elements can cause diseases and poisoning. This study was carried out in order to investigate the concentration of metals in inlet and outlet water of households in Ahvaz city, Iran in 2018.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Water samples were taken from four different residential areas of Ahvaz city and finally 24 samples of inlet water and 24 samples of outlet water were tested. Experiments were performed with three replications. Heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and combined with mass spectrometry. In order to determine the amount of the mentioned heavy metals, ICP-OES (Varian 710-ES) was used .
Results: The highest concentration belonged to calcium (146.39 mg/L) and the lowest concentration belonged to cobalt (0.001 mg/L). The concentration pattern of heavy metals in the inlet and outlet water of the purification devices was as follows: calcium> sodium> magnesium> potassium> iron> zinc>
manganese> chromium= cobalt. The values of calcium, potassium, magnesium, zinc, iron,manganese, copper, cobalt and chromium in the water outlet water were less than the obtained values in the input water.
Conclusion: Concentrations of heavy metals calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, iron, manganese, copper, cobalt and chromium in the inlet and outlet of domestic water purifiers were lower than the national standard of Iran, the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. According to the results, home water purifiers reduce heavy metals.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Household water treatment, Ahvaz City, Drinking water
Full-Text [PDF 636 kb]   (139 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Public Health
Received: 2020/01/28 | Accepted: 2020/01/28 | Published: 2020/01/28
References
1. Nyarko B, Dampare S, Serfor-Armah Y, et al. Bio Monitoring in the Forest Zone of Ghana: the Primary Results Obtained Using Neutron Activation Analysis and Lichens. Int J Environ Pollut 2008; 32(4): 467-76. [DOI:10.1504/IJEP.2008.018410]
2. Ebrahimpour M, Pourkhabbaz A, Baramaki R, et al. Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fish Species, Anzali, Iran. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2011; 87(4): 386-92. [DOI:10.1007/s00128-011-0376-y]
3. Rozic PZ, Dolenec T, Bazdaric B, et al. Element Levels in Cultured and Wild Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) from the Adriatic Sea and Potential Risk Assessment. Environ Geochem Health 2014; 36(1): 19-39. [DOI:10.1007/s10653-013-9516-0]
4. Canli M, Atli G. The Relationships Between Heavy Metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) Levels and the Size of Six Mediterranean Fish Species. Environ Pollut 2003; 121(1): 129-36. [DOI:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00194-X]
5. Ghosh AK, Bhatt MA, Agrawal HP. Effect of Longterm Application of Treated Sewage Water on Heavy Metal Accumulation in Vegetables Grown in Northern India. Environ Monit Assess 2012; 184(2): 1025-36. [DOI:10.1007/s10661-011-2018-6]
6. Apostoae L, Iancu OG. Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soils of Iaşi City and the Suburban Areas (Romania). Studia Univ Babes Bolyai Geol 2009; (Special Issue 16): 142-6.
7. Pathak AK, Yadav S, Kumar P, et al. Source Apportionment and Spatial-Temporal Variation in the Metal Content of Surface Dust Collected from an Industrial Area Adjoining Dehli, India. Sci Total Environ 2013; 443: 662-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.030]
8. Saeedi M, Li LY, Salmanzadeh M. Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Pollution and Ecological Risk Assessment in Street Dust of Tehran. J Hazard Mater 2012; 227-228: 9-17. [DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.04.047]
9. Naji A, Ismail A, Kamrani E, et al. Correlation of MT Levels in Livers and Gills with Heavy Metals in Wild Tilapia (Oreochromis Mossambicus) from the Klang River, Malaysia. Bull Environ contam toxicol 2014; 92(6): 674-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1243-4]
10. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality: Recommendations. 3th ed. Geneva: WHO, 2004, 1-550.
11. Al-Busaidi M, Yesudhason P, Al-Mughairi S, et al. Toxic Metals in Commercial Marine Fish in Oman with Reference to National and International Standards. Chemosphere 2011; 85(1): 67-73. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.05.057]
12. Rahman MS, Molla AH, Saha N, et al. Study on Heavy Metals Levels and Its Risk Assessment in Some Edible Fishes From Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food Chem 2012; 134(4): 1847-54. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.099]
13. Mendil D, Uluozlu OD, Hasdemir E, et al. Determination of Trace Metal Levels in Seven Fish Species in Lakes in Tokat, Turkey. Food Chem 2005; 90(1-2): 175-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.039]
14. Mishra KP. Lead Exposure and its Impact on Immune System: A Review. Toxicol in Vitro 2009; 23(6): 969-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.tiv.2009.06.014]
15. Johnson FO, Atchison WD. The Role of Environmental Mercury, Lead and Pesticide Exposure in Development of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Neurotoxicology 2009; 30(5): 761-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuro.2009.07.010]
16. Madrid L, Diaz-Barrientos E, Madrid F. Distribution of Heavy Metal Contents of Urban Soils in Parks of Seville. Chemosphere 2002; 49(10): 1301-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00530-1]
17. Al-Khashman OA. Heavy Metal Distribution in Dust, Street Dust and Soils from the Work Place in Karak Industrial Estate, Jordan. Atmos Environ 2004; 38(39): 6803-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.09.011]
18. Shabankareh fard E, Hayati R, Dobaradaran S. Evaluation of Physical, Chemical and Microbial Quality of Distribution Network Drinking Water in Bushehr, Iran. Iran South Med J 2015; 17(6): 1223-35. (Persian)
19. Eaton A, Clesceri L, Rice W. Standard Methods for The Examination of Water and Waste Water. 21th ed. Washington Dc: American Public Health Association, 2005.
20. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Incorporating the First and Second Addenda,Volume 1 Recommendations, 3th ed. Geneva: WHO, 2008.
21. Harguinteguy CA, Cirelli AF, Pignata ML. Heavy Metal Accumulation in Leaves of Aquatic Plant Stuckenia Filiformis and Its Relationship with Sediment and Water in the Suquia River (Argentina). Microchem J 2014; 114: 111-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2013.12.010]
22. Van Keer I, Bronders J, Verhack J, et al. Limitations in the Use of Compound-Specific Sstable Isotope Analysis to Understand the Behaviour of a Complex BTEX Groundwater Contamination Near Brussels (Belgium). Environ Earth Sci 2012; 66(2): 457-70. [DOI:10.1007/s12665-011-1254-y]
23. Vrhovnik P, Arrebola JP, Serafimovski T, et al. Potentially Toxic Contamination of Sediments, Water and Two Animal Species in Lake Kalimanci, FYR Macedonia: Relevance to Human Health. Environ Pollut 2013; 180: 92-100. [DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.05.004]
24. Sadigh A, Nasehi F, Fataei E, et al. Investigating the Efficiency of Home Water Treatment Systems to Reduce or Eliminate Water Quality Parameters in the City of Ardabil in 1392. J Health 2015; 6(4): 458-69. (Persian)
25. Miranzadeh MB, Rabbani D. Chemical Quality Evaluation for the Inlet and Outlet Water Taken from of the Desalination Plants Utilized in Kashan During 2008. J Kashan Univ Med Sci 2010; 14(2): 120-5. (Persian)
26. Rajaei MS, Salemi Z, Karimi B, et al. Effect of Household Water Treatment Systems on the Physical and Chemical Quality of Water in 2011-2012. J Arak Univ Med Sci 2013; 16(3): 26-36. (Persian)
27. Bayatzadeh M, Mohammadi Rouzbahani M, Zekavati R. Evaluation of the Efficiency of Domestic Water Treatment Systems in Ahwaz, 2013. J Water Sci Eng 2014; 4(9): 51-62. (Persian)
28. Nourmoradi H, Karami N, Karami S, et al. Investigation on the Effect of Household Water Treatment Plants on the Drinking Water Quality of Ilam City. J Environ Health Eng 2017; 5(1): 57-64. (Persian) [DOI:10.29252/jehe.5.1.57]
29. Pourjamali R, Khalili Sadrabad E, Hashemi SA, et al. Evaluation of Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment Systems Efficiency in Reducing or Removing Physicochemical Parameters and Heavy Metals. J Environ Health and Sustainable Dev 2019; 4(1): 717-26. [DOI:10.18502/jehsd.v4i1.490]
30. Ebrahimi SM, Dehghanzadeh Reihani R, Shiri Z, et al. Bacteriological Quality of Water Produced by Household Water Treatment Devices. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2015; 25(130): 8-18. (Persian)
31. Shih MC. An Overview of Arsenic Removal by Pressure-DrivenMembrane Processes. Desalination 2005; 172(1): 85-97. [DOI:10.1016/j.desal.2004.07.031]
32. Slotnick MJ, Meliker JR, Nriagu JO. Effects of Time and Point-of-Use Devices on Arsenic Levels in Southeastern Michigan Drinking Water, USA. Sci Total Environ 2006; 369(1-3): 42-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.04.021]
33. Clifford D, Subramonian S, Sorg TJ. Water-Treatment Processes. 3. Removing Dissolved Inorganic Contaminants from Water. Environ Sci Technol 1986; 20(11): 1072-80. [DOI:10.1021/es00153a001]
34. Nitzsche KS, Lan VM, Trang PT, et al. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by a Household Sand Filter in Vietnam-Effect of Filter Usage Practices on Arsenic Removal Efficiency and Microbiological Water Quality. Sci Total Environ 2015; 502: 526-36. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.055]
35. Karimian B, Landi A, Hojati S, et al. Physicochemical and Mineralogical Characteristics of Dust Particles Deposited in Ahvaz City. Iran J Soil Water Res 2016; 47(1): 159-73. (Persian)
36. American Public Health Association. Standard Method for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 17th ed. Washington DC: American Public Health Association, 1998.
37. Sakan SM, Dordevic DS, Manojlovic DD, et al. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollutants Accumulation in the Tisza River Sediments. J Environ Manage 2009; 90(11): 3382-90. [DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.05.013]
38. Nahid P, Moslehi P. Heavy Metals Concentrations on Drinking Water in Different Aeras of Tehran as ppb and Methods of Remal Them. J Food Sci Technol 2008; 5(16): 29-35. (Persian)
39. Asghari Saraskanrood S, Doolatshahi Z, Pour Ahmad M. The Effect of Heavy Metals on Khorramabad Water Quality Obtained Using Standards (National, World Health Organization and EPA). Hydrogeomorphology 2017; 3(9): 21-41. (Persian)
40. Berlin M. Handbook of the Toxicology of Metals. In: Nordberg G, Fowler B, Nordberg M, editors. 4th ed. London: Elsevier, 1985, 376-405.
41. World Health Organization. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health. Geneva: WHO, 1996, 1-361.
42. Massaro E. Handbook of Human Toxicology. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1997.
43. Schumann K. Safety Asoects of Iron in Food. Ann Nutr Metab 2001; 45(3): 91-101. [DOI:10.1159/000046713]
44. Lall SP, Halver JE. Fish Nutrition. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press, 1989, 219-257.
45. Askary Sary A, Velayatzadeh M. Heavy metals in aquatics. 1st ed. Ahvaz: Islamic Azad University Ahvaz Publication, 2014, 380. (Persian)
46. Ozden O. Seasonal Differences in the Trace Metal and Macrominerals in Shrimp (Parapenaus longirostris) from Marmara Sea. Environ Monit Assess 2010; 162(1-4): 191-9. [DOI:10.1007/s10661-009-0787-y]
47. Javaheri Baboli M, Velayatzadeh M. Determination of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Muscles of Marine Shrimp, Fenneropenaeus Merguiensis from Persian Gulf, Iran. J Anim Plant Sci 2013; 23(3): 786-91.
48. Tavangar A, Naimi N, Alizade H, et al. Evaluation of Water Treatment Systems' Performance Available in Bojnurd Ciry During 2013. J North Khorasan Uni Med Sci 2014; 5(5): 1107-19. (Persian) [DOI:10.29252/jnkums.5.5.S5.1107]
49. Dehghanzadeh R, Talebzadeh N, Taghipour H, et al. Evaluation Impact of Point of Use (POU) Household Water Treatment Devices (HWTDs) Application on Tap Water Quality and Determine the Removal Efficiency of THMs and HAAs. Desalin Water Treat 2018; 105: 62-72. [DOI:10.5004/dwt.2018.21987]
50. Arfaeinia H, Ranjbar Vakil Abadi D, Seifi M, et al. Study of Concentrations and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Resulting From the Consumption of Agriculture Product in Different Farms of Dayyer City, Bushehr. Iran South Med J 2016; 19(5): 839-54. (Persian) [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.ismj.19.5.839]
51. Haghshenas A, Hatami-manesh M, Mirzaei M, et al. Measurement and Evaluation of Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments of Pars Special Economic Energy Zone. Iran South Med J 2017; 20(5): 448-69. (Persian)
52. Keshmiri S, Pordel S, Raeesi A, et al. Environmental Pollution Caused by Gas and Petrochemical Industries and Its Effects on the Health of Residents of Assaluyeh Region, Irani-an Energy Capital: A Review Study. Iran South Med J 2018; 21(2): 162-85. (Persian)
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Velayatzadeh M, Payandeh K. Effect of Household Water Treatment on the Concentration of Heavy Metals of Drinking Water in Ahvaz City. Iran South Med J. 2020; 22 (6) :402-414
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-1202-en.html


Volume 22, Issue 6 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2020) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

Iranian South Medical Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read,
copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Copyright © 2017, Iranian South Medical Journal| All Rights Reserved

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 4162