[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 19, Number 3 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2016) ::
Iran South Med J 2016, 19(3): 457-481 Back to browse issues page
The structure and mode of action of the dinoflagellate toxins
Akram Najafi *1, Iraj Nabipour2
1- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , akna85@gmail.com
2- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Abstract:   (1567 Views)

Background: Dinoflagellates are the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. In different studies, it has been shown that many dinoflagellate species produce various natural toxins. Saxitoxin, brevetoxin, yessotoxin, etc can be considered as the most important neurotoxins. The most important dinoflagellate toxins structures, their origin, structure and mechanisms of action were evaluated in a systematic review.

Materials & Methods: Marine dinoflagellates, marine toxins, and their mechanisms of action and structure were keywords for a comprehensive search in online databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Scirus. A total of 95 papers were evaluated, however, by omitting similar reports, 68 papers were included in the study.

Results: Dinoflagellates toxins are usually polycyclic ether and polyketaide compounds that have distinct mechanisms of action including alteration in different ion channels and/or pumps at cell membrane, effect on the normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues, inhibition of serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, disrupting major mechanisms of controlling cellular functions, and alteration in cellular cytoskeleton. However, the precise mechanisms of action of few toxins are not determined yet.

Conclusion: The clarification of the dinoflagellate toxins structures and their mechanisms of action may be helpful for novel drug design, therapeutic measures and to overcome against marine toxicity. 

Keywords: Dinoflagellates, Marine toxins, Marine toxicity, Marine toxinology
Full-Text [PDF 1416 kb]   (796 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin
Received: 2016/07/26 | Accepted: 2016/07/26 | Published: 2016/07/26
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or email:

Write the security code in the box >



DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ismj.19.3.457
PMID: 26985828
PMCID: PMC4795549


XML   Persian Abstract   Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Najafi A, Nabipour I. The structure and mode of action of the dinoflagellate toxins. Iran South Med J. 2016; 19 (3) :457-481
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-808-en.html
Volume 19, Number 3 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2016) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

Iranian South Medical Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read,
copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Copyright © 2017, Iranian South Medical Journal| All Rights Reserved

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.047 seconds with 792 queries by yektaweb 3506