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:: Volume 19, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2016) ::
Iran South Med J 2016, 19(4): 736-772 Back to browse issues page
The toxinology of stingrays
Gholamhossein Mohebbi *1, Zahra Amini Khoei 2, Iraj Nabipour 2
1- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , mohebbihsn@yahoo.com
2- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Abstract:   (1527 Views)

Background: Stingrays belong to Chondrichthyes class.They live in freshwaters and oceans all over the world. They have venomous spines next to the root of the tail. Their barbed stingers covered with secretory cells that cause a large number of serious human injuries. In this review, we evaluate the toxinology of these venomous animals.

Results: Some of inoculated venom symptoms included the immediate and intense pain, inflammation and skin necrosis, bleeding wounds, acute edema, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, headaches, muscle cramps, tremors, paralysis, dyspnea, cardiovascular collapse, local vasoconstriction, seizures, coma, and rarely death. The venom contains 5-HT, 5-nucleotidase, acetylcholine , phosphodiesterase, proteolytic enzymes against casein, gelatin, and fibrinogen, and several toxins such as cystatins, galectin, peroxiredoxin 6, orpotrin and porflan, and other peptids and proteins including alpha subunit haemoglobin, ganglioside GM2 activator, glutathione s-transferase µ, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, transaldolase, ATP synthase, nucleoside diphosphate kinase and type III intermediate filament. Galectin has a diverse functions including anticoagulant, procoagulant, platelet-modulating, myotoxic and haemagglutination activities. Cystatins are potent inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, including papain and the cathepsins. Hydrolysis of lipids through PLA2 activity is one of the most important functions of peroxiredoxin-6. Orpotrin and porflan have vasoconstrictive and inflammatory effects, respectively.

Conclusion: Stingray venoms have different toxins and bioactive molecules with diverse mechanisms of toxicities. A thorough understanding of the toxicities mechanisms and clinical manifestations of stingrays’ venoms will provide the ability to treat effectively and manage injuries with this animals by clinicians and toxinologists.

Keywords: stingrays, toxinology, toxin
Full-Text [PDF 2238 kb]   (473 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Systematic and Meta Analysis | Subject: Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin
Received: 2016/09/11 | Accepted: 2016/09/11 | Published: 2016/09/11
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DOI: 10.18869/acadpub.ismj.19.4.736
PMID: 27737494
PMCID: PMC5221489


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Mohebbi G, Amini Khoei Z, Nabipour I. The toxinology of stingrays. Iran South Med J. 2016; 19 (4) :736-772
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-824-en.html
Volume 19, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2016) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

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