1- Department of Exercise Physiology, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Jahrom Branch, Jahrom, Iran 2- Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran 3- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, the Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran 4- Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: (1105 Views)
Background: Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) improves exercise performance, and since this phenomenon has two phases, the aim of the current study was to investigate the delayed effects of remote ischemic preconditioning on cardiopulmonary function in athletes and non-athletes.
Materials and Methods: 25 male and female students were studied in two main athletes and non-athletes groups. RIPC was induced by using 3 cycles of alternative 5 minutes ischemia and 5 minutes reperfusion at arms of participants. Cardiopulmonary tests were measured before, after and 24 hours after inducing remote ischemic preconditioning. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) estimated by using queen steps test.
Results: Analysis of data demonstrated that delayed RIPC in non-athletes group caused significant improvement in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) and noticeable improvement in some other parameters of pulmonary function tests. Moreover, it decreased systolic blood pressure and heart rate and decreased lactate release in both groups especially athletes group but it had no significant effect on VO2max of both groups.
Conclusion: Delayed RIPC improves cardiovascular function of athletes and pulmonary function of non-athletes subjects. Thus, it can be considered as a good replacement for doping to improve sports performance of subjects in sports tournaments.
Type of Study: Original |
Subject: Physiology Received: 2016/11/17 | Accepted: 2016/11/17 | Published: 2016/11/17
1. Van Wylen DG. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on interstitial purine metabolite and lactate accumulation during myocardial ischemia. Circulation 1994; 89(5): 2283-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
2. de Groot PCE, Thijssen DHJ, Sanchez M, et al. Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 2010; 108(1): 141-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Bailey TG, Jones H, Gregson W, et al. Effect of ischemic preconditioning on lactate accumulation and running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012: 44(11): 2084-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
4. Li G, Chen S, Lu E, et al. Cardiac ischemic preconditioning improves lung preservation in valve replacement operations. Ann Thorac Surg 2001; 71(2): 631-5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
5. Przyklenk K, Whittaker P. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Current Knowledge, Unresolved Questions, and Future Priorities. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2011; 16(3-4): 255-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Jean-St-Michel E, Manlhiot C, Li J, et al. Remote preconditioning improves maximal performance in highly trained athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2011; 43(7): 1280-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Crisafulli A, Tangianu F, Tocco F, et al. Ischemic preconditioning of the muscle improves maximal exercise performance but not maximal oxygen uptake in humans. J Appl Physiol 2011; 111(2): 530-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Barbosa TC, Machado AC, Braz ID, et al. Remote ischemic preconditioning delays fatigue development during handgrip exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2014; 25(3): 356-64. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
9. Noakes T. Physiological models to understand exercise fatigue and the adaptations that predict or enhance athletic performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2000; 10(3): 123-45. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Akbari Z, Sedaghat Z, Esmaili-Dehaj M, et al. Effects of remote limb ischemic preconditioning on pulmonary function tests and maximal oxygen uptake. Physiol Pharmacol 2014; 18(3): 315-26.
11. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Pechar GS, et al. Reliability and interrelationships between maximal oxygen intake, physical work capacity and step-test scores in college women. Med Sci Sport 1972; 4(4): 182-6. [PubMed]
12. Verges S, Lenherr O, Haner AC, et al. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2007; 292(3): R1246-53. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Green HJ. Mechanisms of muscle fatigue in intense exercise. J Sports Sci 1997; 15(3): 247-56. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
14. Pang CY, Yang RZ, Zhong A, et al. Acute ischaemic preconditioning protects against skeletal muscle infarction in the pig. Cardiovasc Res 1995; 29(6): 782-8. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
15. Spriet LL, Heigenhauser GL. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Exer Sport Sci Rev 2002; 30(2): 91-5. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
16. Morris T, Sumners DP, Green DA. Inspiratory high frequency airway oscillation attenuates resistive loaded dyspnea and modulates respiratory function in young healthy individuals. Plos One 2014; 9(3): e91291. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
17. Gigliotti F, Binazzi B, Scano G. Does training of respiratory muscles affect exercise performance in healthy subjects. Respir Med 2006; 100(6): 1117-20. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
18. Li C, Xu M, Wu Y, et al. Limb Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Attenuates Lung Injury after Pulmonary Resection under Propofol-Remifentanil Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Study. Anesthesiology 2014; 121(2): 249-59. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
19. Foster GP, Giri PC, Rogers DM, et al. Ischemic preconditioning improves oxygen saturation and attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol 2014; 15(2): 155-61. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
20. Zhou W, Zeng D, Chen R, et al. Limb ischemic preconditioning reduces heart and lung injury after an open heart operation in infants. Pediatr Cardiol 2010; 31(1): 22-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Lin LN, Wang LR, Wang WT, et al. Ischemic preconditioning attenuates pulmonary dysfunction after unilateral thigh tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion. Anesth Analg 2010; 111(2): 539-43. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
22. Baxter GF, Marber MS, Patel VC, et al. Adenosine receptor involvement in a delayed phase of myocardial protection 24 hours after ischemic preconditioning. Circulation 1994; 90(6): 2993-3000. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
23. Koeppen M, Eckle T, Eltzschig HK. Selective deletion of the A1 adenosine receptor abolishes heart-rate slowing effects of intravascular adenosine in vivo. PloS One 2009; 4(8): e6784. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
24. Fuller RW, Maxwell DL, Conradson TB, et al. Circulatory and respiratory effects of infused adenosine in conscious man. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1987; 24(3): 309-17. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Donato M, Buchholz B, Rodriguez M, et al. Role of the parasympathetic nervous system in cardioprotection by remote hindlimb ischaemic preconditioning. Exp Physiol 2013; 98(2): 425-34. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
Momeni M, Nikseresht A, Akbari Z, Daneshi A, Pourkhalili K. Delayed Effects of Remote Limb Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximum Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Release and Pulmonary Function Tests in Athletes and non-Athletes. Iran South Med J. 2016; 19 (5) :819-831 URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-830-en.html