[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 21, Issue 6 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2019) ::
Iran South Med J 2019, 21(6): 426-438 Back to browse issues page
Cytotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Colon Cancer Cell Line (HT29) and Analysis of Caspase-3 and 9 Gene Expression Using Real Time PCR and Flow Cytometry
Faezeh Shokrolahi1 , Elahe Aliasgari 2, Amir Mirzaie3
1- Department of Biology, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Biology, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , ealiasgari@iauet.ac.ir
3- Department of Biology, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
Abstract:   (3239 Views)
Background: Today, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles present extensive therapeutic applications. The present study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxicity of TiO2 on colon cancer cell line (HT29), and analyze the expression of caspase-3 and 9 genes.
Materials and Methods: The present experimental study used the MTT assay to examine the cytotoxicity of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml concentrations of TiO2 nanoparticles on cell line HT29. After the treatment of HT29 cells with IC50 concentration of TiO2, the gene expression levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were investigated and compared with the reference gene of GAPDH using real time PCR. DAPI staining and flow cytometry were ultimately used to confirm apoptosis in HT29 cells. 
Results: The treatment of HT29 cells with different concentrations of TiO2 showed that TiO2 nanoparticles at 50 and 100 µg/ml concentrations present the highest cytotoxicity, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of caspase-3 gene was found to be significantly upregulated by 2.0±69.13 (P<0.001) and that of caspase-9 gene by 3.0±46.29 (P<0.001) in HT29 cell lines treated with TiO2 nanoparticles for 24 hours. The results of DAPI staining and flow cytometry also confirmed apoptosis in HT29 cells.  
Conclusion: According to the obtained results, TiO2 nanoparticles can be recommended as prospective medicinal candidates for pharmaceutical purposes, although further studies are required in this field.
Keywords: TiO2 nanoparticle, colon cancer, apoptosis, real time PCR, flow cytometry
Full-Text [PDF 1039 kb]   (1778 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Biochemistry. Cell Biology and Genetics
Received: 2018/01/16 | Accepted: 2018/06/24 | Published: 2019/01/1
1. Salata O. Applications of nanoparticles in biology and medicine. J Nanobiotechnology 2004; 2: 3.
2. Liang XJ, Chen C, Zhao Y, et al. Biopharmaceutics and therapeutic potential of engineered nanomaterials. Curr Drug Metab 2008; 9(8): 697-709.
3. Bae KH, Chung HJ, Park TG. Nanomaterials for cancer therapy and imaging. Mol Cells 2011; 31(4): 295-302.
4. Zhang G, Zeng X, Li P. Nanomaterials in cancer-therapy drug delivery system. J Biomed Nanotechnol 2013; 9(5): 741-50.
5. Chen Y, Chen H, Shi J. Drug delivery/imaging multifunctionality of mesoporous silica-based composite nanostructures. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2014; 11(6):917-30.
6. Zaimy MA, Saffarzadeh N, Mohammadi A, et al. New methods in the diagnosis of cancer and gene therapy of cancer based on nanoparticles. Cancer Gene Ther 2017; 24(6): 233-43.
7. Pérez-Herrero E, Fernández-Medarde A. Advanced targeted therapies in cancer: Drug nanocarriers, the future of chemotherapy. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2015; 93: 52-79.
8. Estanqueiro M, Amaral MH, Conceição J, et al. Nanotechnological carriers for cancer chemotherapy: the state of the art. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015; 126: 631-48.
9. Ali I, Lone MN, Suhail M, et al. Advances in Nanocarriers for Anticancer Drugs Delivery. Curr Med Chem 2016; 23(20): 2159-87.
10. Peer D, Karp JM, Hong S, et al. Nanocarriers as an emerging platform for cancer therapy. Nat Nanotechnol 2007; 2(12): 751-60.
11. Shi H, Magaye R, Castranova V, et al. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: a review of current toxicological data. Part Fibre Toxicol 2013; 10: 15.
12. Wang Y, Cui H, Zhou J, et al. Cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis induced by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2015; 22(7): 5519-30.
13. Tariq K, Ghias K. Colorectal cancer carcinogenesis: a review of mechanisms. Cancer Biol Med 2016; 13(1): 120-35.
14. Carethers JM, Jung BH. Genetics and genetic biomarkers in sporadic colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 2015; 149(5): 1177-90.
15. Edwards MS, Chadda SD, Zhao Z, et al. A systematic review of treatment guidelines for metastatic colorectal cancer. Colorectal Dis 2012; 14(2): e31-47.
16. Bharali DJ, Khalil M, Gurbuz M, et al. Nanoparticles and cancer therapy: a concise review with emphasis on dendrimers. Int J Nanomedicine 2009; 4: 1-7.
17. Elmore S. Apoptosis: a review of programmed cell death. Toxicol Pathol 2007; 35(4): 495-516.
18. Fernald K, Kurokawa M. Evading apoptosis in cancer. Trends Cell Biol 2013; 23(12): 620-33.
19. Kiess W, Gallaher B. Hormonal control of programmed cell death/apoptosis. Eur J Endocrinol 1998; 138(5): 482-91.
20. Gmeiner WH, Ghosh S. Nanotechnology for cancer treatment. Nanotechnol Rev 2015; 3(2): 111–22.
21. Scatena R. Mitochondria and cancer: a growing role in apoptosis, cancer cell metabolism and dedifferentiation. Adv Exp Med Biol 2012; 942: 287-308.
22. Nicolson GL. Cell membrane fluid-mosaic structure and cancer metastasis. Cancer Res 2015; 75(7): 1169-76.
23. Garcia-Contreras R, Scougall-Vilchis RJ, Contreras-Bulnes R, et al. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on cytotoxic action of chemotherapeutic drugs against a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. In Vivo 2014; 28(2): 209-15.
24. Chellappa M, Anjaneyulu U, Manivasagam G, et al. Preparation and evaluation of the cytotoxic nature of TiO2 nanoparticles by direct contact method. Int J Nanomedicine 2015; 10 Suppl 1: 31-41.
25. Dubey A, Goswami M, Yadav K, et al. Oxidative stress and nano-toxicity induced by TiO2 and ZnO on WAG cell line. PLoS One 2015; 10(5): e0127493.
26. Ghavami S, Hashemi M, Ande SR, et al. Apoptosis and cancer: mutations within caspase genes. J Med Genet 2009; 46(8): 497-510.
27. Brun E, Barreau F, Veronesi G, et al. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle impact and translocation through ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro gut epithelia. Part Fibre Toxicol 2014; 11: 13.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Shokrolahi F, Aliasgari E, Mirzaie A. Cytotoxic Effects of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Colon Cancer Cell Line (HT29) and Analysis of Caspase-3 and 9 Gene Expression Using Real Time PCR and Flow Cytometry. Iran South Med J. 2019; 21 (6) :426-438
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-979-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 21, Issue 6 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2019) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

Iranian South Medical Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read,
copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Copyright © 2022, Iranian South Medical Journal| All Rights Reserved

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4419