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:: Volume 19, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2016) ::
Iran South Med J 2016, 19(4): 704-735 Back to browse issues page
Sea urchin: toxinology, bioactive compounds and its treatment management
Gholamhossein Mohebbi 1, Amir Vazirizadeh2, Iraj Nabipour3
1- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , mohebbihsn@yahoo.com
2- Department of Marine Biotechnology, The Persian Gulf Research and Studies Center, The Persian Gulf University, ,Bushehr,Iran
3- The Persian Gulf Marine Biotechnology Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
Abstract:   (5966 Views)

Background: The sea urchins are classified in the echinoderms category because of their spiny skin. Saponins are the major responsible metabolites for Echinodermata biological activities . As mentioned before, about 80 species of sea urchins are venomous for human. Their spine, pedicellariae, and some other organs such as gonads and coelomic fluids contain different toxins and bioactive compounds. This review study have evaluated toxinology and bioactive compounds from the extracts, and treatment management of these venomous animals.

Results: Contractin A, echinochrome A, echinometrin, major yolk protein (MYP), centrocins (I, II(, cathepsin B/X, strongylostatins (I,II), vitellogenin, UT841 toxin, spinochrome, and pedoxin as the prosthetic group of peditoxin are the most important compounds obtained from these animals.

Some people show poisoning symptoms following the ingestion of sea urchin gonads, especially during the breeding season. Some of these symptoms included allergies symptoms, as the first symptoms, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, epigastric distress, severe headache, swelling of the lips and mouth, salivation, abdominal pain and some systemic symptoms such as hypotension, numbness and weakness. The most injuries by sea urchin can cause by contact to spines, which can create the various complications such as granuloma, synovitis, arthritis, edema, hyperkeratosis and even neuroma. Injuries by pedicellaria may cause severe pain, local edema, bleeding, lethargy, weakness, tingling, joint pain, aphonia, dizziness, syncope, general muscle paralysis, respiratory distress, hypotension and, infrequently death. After the injury by sea urchin, removing the spines and pedicellariae should be done to minimize the contact with the venom source, and subsequently the management of wounds and poisoning symptoms, as quickly as possible.

Conclusion: The venoms of some sea urchins have toxins and bioactive molecules that produce toxicity effects on their victims by a variety of mechanisms. Despite the various studies in toxinology field, on these animals, the comprehensive studies that led to the identification of pure toxins from their crude venoms are handful and unfinished and it is important to do further studies on this field, in the future.

Keywords: sea urchin, venom, toxin, poisoning, treatment
Full-Text [PDF 2134 kb]   (4296 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review Systematic and Meta Analysis | Subject: Disorders of Systemic, Metabolic or Environmental Origin
Received: 2016/09/11 | Accepted: 2016/09/11 | Published: 2016/09/11
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Mohebbi G, Vazirizadeh A, Nabipour I. Sea urchin: toxinology, bioactive compounds and its treatment management. Iran South Med J. 2016; 19 (4) :704-735
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