[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 20, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2017) ::
Iran South Med J 2017, 20(4): 370-379 Back to browse issues page
Evaluation of Lethal Effect of Pergularia Tomentosa and Priploca aphylla on Trichomonas Vaginalis In Vitro
Morad Ali Fouladvand 1, Solyman Khorami 2, Kohzad Sartavi 3
1- Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
2- Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran , Khorami_bu@yahoo.com
3- Jahad-Keshavarzi Research Center, Bushehr, Iran
Abstract:   (1722 Views)
Background: Trichomonas vaginalis protozoan is one of the causes of human vaginitis. The selective medicine for treatment is metronidazole. However, it has some adverse outcomes including increasing drug resistance and having numerous side effects. Pergularia tomentosa is a desert plant with some antifungal and anti-Plasmodium properties. Interestingly, the anti-dermatophytic effect of Priploca aphylla is more powerful than conventional antifungal drugs such as griseofulvin. In this study, we aimed to use its ingredients to introduce a new medicine for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infections.
Materials and Methods: Pergularia tomentosa and Periploca aphylla were collected, cleaned and dried. Then, plants main ingredients were extracted by using water, methanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane solvents. Then, herbal extracts with concentrations of 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800 µg/ml were prepared by adding normal saline and glycerin. Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoite with the concentration of 106/100 µl was mixed with 100 ml of an herbal extract of Pergularia tomentosa and Priploca aphylla. The mixture incubated for 24 hours at 37°C. The mortality rate of the protozoa was measured by using the MTT test, and the effect of extracts was evaluated on Vero cells. The phytochemical evaluation was performed using the HPTLC technique to determine the composition of the extract. All tests were repeated three times and SPSS software, version 16 was used for data analysis.
Results: Anti-Trichomonas aqueous, methanol, dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of Pergularia tomentosa in 800µg/ml concentration was % 64, % 72.4, %95.2 and % 95.4 respectively. Lethal effect on Trichomonas for Priploca aphylla with the same concentration was 70.8%, 67%, 93.4% and 93.2% respectively. Cytotoxic effect of methanol extracts of Pergularia tomentosa and Priploca aphylla at 800µg/ml concentration against Vero cells was %50.3 and %63 respectively. Phytochemical screening of herbal extracts showed that both have the same ingredients including alkaloid, flavonoid, terpenoid, saponin, sterol, phenol, iridoid, tannin, phenylpropanoid, and anthocyanins.
Conclusion: The results showed that for Pergularia tomentosa and Priploca aphylla, the dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts were more effective against Trichomonas vaginalis than methanolic and water extracts in all concentrations. For the future research, identification of the mechanism of anti-Trichomonas vaginalis effect of these herbal ingredients is necessary.
Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Pergularia tomentosa, Priploca aphylla, MTT, Vero
Full-Text [PDF 544 kb]   (377 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Parasitology
Received: 2017/08/27 | Accepted: 2017/08/27 | Published: 2017/08/27
1. Newman L, Rowley J, Vander Hoorn S, et al. Global estimates of the prevalence and incidence of four curable sexually transmitted infections in 2012 based on systematic review and global reporting. PloS One 2015; 10(12): e0143304. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0143304]
2. Geelen TH, Hoebe CJ, Dirks A, et al. Low positivity rate after systematic screening for Trichomonas vaginalis in three patient cohorts from general practitioners, STI clinic and a national population-based chlamydia screening study. Sex Transm Infect 2013; 89(6): 532-4. [DOI:10.1136/sextrans-2012-051010]
3. Shew ML, Fortenberry JD, Tu W, et al. Association of condom use, sexual behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections with the duration of genital human papillomavirus infection among adolescent women. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2006; 160(2): 151-6. [DOI:10.1001/archpedi.160.2.151]
4. Gottlieb SL, Douglas JM, Foster M, et al. Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and the effect of HIV/STD risk-reduction counseling. J Infect Dis 2004; 190(6): 1059-67. [DOI:10.1086/423323]
5. McClelland RS, Sangaré L, Hassan WM, et al. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. J Infect Dis 2007; 195(5): 698-702. [DOI:10.1086/511278]
6. Van Der Pol B, Kwok C, Pierre-Louis B, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection and human immunodeficiency virus acquisition in African women. J Infect Dis 2008; 197(4): 548-54. [DOI:10.1086/526496]
7. Kissinger P, Amedee A, Clark RA, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis treatment reduces vaginal HIV-1 shedding. Sex Transm Dis 2009; 36(1): 11-6. [DOI:10.1097/OLQ.0b013e318186decf]
8. Schmid G, Narcisi E, Mosure D, et al. Prevalence of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis in a gynecology clinic. J Reprod Med 2001; 46(6): 545-9. [DOI:10.1097/00006254-200111000-00015]
9. Hager WD. Treatment of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis with tinidazole: case reports of three patients. Sex Transm Dis 2004; 31(6): 343-5. [DOI:10.1097/00007435-200406000-00004]
10. Petrin D, Delgaty K, Bhatt R, et al. Clinical and microbiological aspects of Trichomonas vaginalis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1998; 11(2): 300-17. [DOI:10.1128/CMR.11.2.300]
11. Kuriyama A, Jackson JL, Doi A, et al. Metronidazole-induced central nervous system toxicity: a systematic review. Clin Neuropharmacol 2011; 34(6): 241-7. [DOI:10.1097/WNF.0b013e3182334b35]
12. Chacko J, Pramod K, Sinha S, et al. Clinical, neuroimaging and pathological features of 5-nitroimidazole-induced encephalo-neuropathy in two patients: Insights into possible pathogenesis. Neurol India 2011; 59(5): 743. [DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.86552]
13. Connor TH, Stoeckel M, Evrard J, et al. The contribution of metronidazole and two metabolites to the mutagenic activity detected in urine of treated humans and mice. Cancer Res 1977; 37(2): 629-33.
14. Lindmark DG, Müller M. Antitrichomonad action, mutagenicity, and reduction of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles. Antimicrob Agents Chemothe 1976; 10(3): 476-82. [DOI:10.1128/AAC.10.3.476]
15. Koss CA, Baras DC, Lane SD, et al. Investigation of metronidazole use during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012; 56(9): 4800-5. [DOI:10.1128/AAC.06477-11]
16. Kazy Z, Puhó E, Czeizel AE. Teratogenic potential of vaginal metronidazole treatment during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2005; 123(2): 174-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.03.016]
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Workowski KA, Berman SM. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006. MMWR Recomm Rep 2006; 55(RR-11): 1-94.
18. Blaha C, Duchêne M, Aspöck H, et al. In vitro activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against metronidazole-resistant and-susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 57(2): 273-8. [DOI:10.1093/jac/dki417]
19. Wachter B, Syrowatka M, Obwaller A, et al. In vitro efficacy of curcumin on Trichomonas vaginalis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2014; 126(1): 32-6. [DOI:10.1007/s00508-014-0522-8]
20. Emami SA, Sahebkar A, Javadi B. Paresthesia: a review of its definition, etiology and treatments in view of the traditional medicine. Curr Pharm Des 2016; 22(3): 321-7. [DOI:10.2174/1381612822666151112145348]
21. Kaushik NK, Bagavan A, Rahuman AA, et al. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants from North Indian Buchpora and South Indian Eastern Ghats. Malar J 2015; 14: 65. [DOI:10.1186/s12936-015-0564-z]
22. Bekheet SH, Abdel-Motaal FF, Mahalel UA. Antifungal effects of Ficus sycomorus and Pergularia tomentosa aqueous extracts on some organs in Bufo regularis treated with Aspergillus niger. Tissue Cell 2011; 43(6): 398-404. [DOI:10.1016/j.tice.2011.09.002]
23. Hassan SW, Umar RA, Ladan MJ, et al. Nutritive value, phytochemical and antifungal properties of Pergularia tomentosa L.(Asclepiadaceae). Int J Pharmacol 2007; 3(4): 334-40. [DOI:10.3923/ijp.2007.334.340]
24. NU R, Aslam Kh, Urooj F, et al. Presence of laxative and antidiarrheal activities in Periploca aphylla: A Saudi medicinal plant. Int J Pharmacol 2013; 9(3): 190. [DOI:10.3923/ijp.2013.190.196]
25. Mwololo SW, Mutiso JM, Macharia JC, et al. In vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of a combination therapy of diminazene and chloroquine against murine visceral leishmaniasis. J Biomed Res 2015; 29(3): 214-23.
26. Arabsalmany M, Behzadifar M, Olyaeemanesh A, et al. The prevalence of herpes simplex virus of pregnancy in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Iran J Child Neurol 2016; 11(2): 11309.
27. Sobel JD, Nyirjesy P, Brown W. Tinidazole therapy for metronidazole-resistant vaginal trichomoniasis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33(8): 1341-6. [DOI:10.1086/323034]
28. Mahmoudvand H, Sepahvand P, Jahanbakhsh S, et al. Evaluation of the antileishmanial and cytotoxic effects of various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) on Leishmania tropica. J Parasit Dis 2016; 40(2): 423-6. [DOI:10.1007/s12639-014-0520-9]
29. Hussein HI, Al-Rajhy D, El-Shahawi FI, et al. Molluscicidal activity of Pergularia tomentosa (L.), methomyl and methiocarb, against land snails. Int J Pest Manage 1999; 45(3): 211-3. [DOI:10.1080/096708799227815]
30. Piacente S, Masullo M, De Nève N, et al. Cardenolides from Pergularia tomentosa display cytotoxic activity resulting from their potent inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase. J Nat Prod 2009; 72(6): 1087-91. [DOI:10.1021/np800810f]
31. Rauf A, Muhammad N, Khan A, et al. Antibacterial and phytotoxic profile of selected Pakistani medicinal plants. World Appl Sci J 2012; 20(4): 540-4.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fouladvand M A, khorami S, Sartavi K. Evaluation of Lethal Effect of Pergularia Tomentosa and Priploca aphylla on Trichomonas Vaginalis In Vitro. Iran South Med J. 2017; 20 (4) :370-379
URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-889-en.html

Volume 20, Issue 4 (Iranian South Medical Journal 2017) Back to browse issues page
دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، طب جنوب ISMJ

Iranian South Medical Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License which allows users to read,
copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Copyright © 2017, Iranian South Medical Journal| All Rights Reserved

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.07 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3855