1- Food Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran Division of Food Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , firstname.lastname@example.org 2- Division of Food Microbiology, Department of Pathobiology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3- Center for Communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 4- Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran 5- Food Microbiology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract: (1512 Views)
Background: In recent years, changing the infant feeding methods and the growing trend of use powdered infant formula (PIF) has raised concern about quality and health assessment among them. These products are contaminated with various pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus which the presence of this bacteria in PIF is important because of consumer age group and virulence of this bacteria in PIF. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of Bacillus cereus in powdered milk infant formula consuming in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Tehran hospitals in 2013-14.
Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 125 samples of powdered infant formula milk which were used in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) were surveyed during 8 month in 2014. Isolation and identification of microorganisms (including Bacillus cereus) were carried out according to FDA standard protocol (FDA method) on B. cereus selective agar (MYP Agar).
Results: The results of present study showed that of 125 samples from of consumable powdered infant formula milk, 84 (67.2%) samples were contaminated with B.cereus and also 18 (14.4%) samples were contaminated by more than one B.cereus species.
Conclusion: As regards pasteurization process is not effective on the spore of B.cereus., The spores of these bacteria can remain in PIF and can cause food poisoning in infants. For this purpose, more attention to quality control of production units and imported powder milk is recommended in Iranian infant foods.
1. Askarizade N, Pourzakariya Z, Najafpoor A. Fluoride Content of Packaged Milk and Infant Formulas in Tehran. Res Dent Sci 2014; 11(2): 108-11. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
2. Fomon SJ, Ekstrand J, Ziegler EE. Fluoride intake and prevalence of dental fluorosis: trends in fluoride intake with special attention to infants. J Public Health Dent 2000; 60(3): 131-9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
3. Logan NA, Turnbull PC. In Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Murray PR, editor. United States: Washington DC, 1999, 357-69.
4. Drobniewski FA. Bacillus cereus and related species. Clin Microbiol Rev 1993; 6(4): 324-38. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
6. Park YB, Kim JB, Shin SW, et al. Prevalence, genetic diversity, and antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from rice and cereals collected in Korea. J Food Prot 2009; 72(3): 612-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
7. Duc Le H, Dong TC, Logan NA, et al. Cases of emesis associated with bacterial contamination of an infant breakfast cereal product. Int J Food Microbiol 2005; 102(2): 245-51. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
8. Rahimifard N, Fatholahzadeh B, Noory Z, et al. Bacillus cereus contamination in infant formula: a study in food and drug control laboratory. Tehran Univ Med J 2007; 65(8): 64-8. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
9. Rosenquist H, Smidt L, Andersen SR, et al. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2005; 250(1): 129-36. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
10. Taiwan Department of Health. Statistical data of food poisoning in Taiwan. (Accessed January 20, 2005, at http://food.doh.gov.tw/life/foodpoisoning/ foodpoisoningp70.htm.)
11. Reyes JE, Bastías JM, Gutiérrez MR, et al. Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in dried milk products used by Chilean School Feeding Program. Food Microbiol 2007; 24(1): 1-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
12. Rahimi E, Abdos F, Momtaz H, et al. Bacillus cereus in Infant Foods: Prevalence Study and Distribution of Enterotoxigenic Virulence Factors in Isfahan Province, Iran. Scientific World Journal 2013; 2013: 292571. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
13. Deeb A, Al-Hawary I, Shahine D. Bacteriological investigation on milk powder in the Egyptian market with emphasis on its safety. Global Veterinaria 2010; 4(5): 424-33. [Google Scholar]
14. Di Pinto A, Bonerba E, Bozzo G, et al. Occurence of potentially enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus in infant milk powder. Eur Food Res Technol 2013; 237(2): 275-9. [Google Scholar]
15. Logan NA. Bacillus and relatives in foodborne illness. J Appl Microbiol 2012; 112(3): 417-29. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
16. Sandra A, Afsah-Hejri L, Tunung R, et al. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat cooked rice in Malaysia. Intern Food Res J 2012; 19(3): 829-36. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
17. Moradi-Khatoonabadi Z, Maghsoudlou Y, Ezzatpanah H, et al. Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in raw milk receiving from UF-Feta Cheese Plants. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng (IJHE) 2013; 6(4): 545-57. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
18. Deilami Khiabani Z, Noori E, Rahnama M, et al. Detection of NHE Complex Genes in Bacillus cereus Isolated from Rice Samples from Zanjan, Iran by Multiplex PCR. Modares J Med Sci Pathol 2012; 14(4): 89-97. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
19. Mardaneh J, Soltan Dallal MM. Isolation and Identification Enterobacter asburiae from Consumed Powdered Infant Formula Milk (PIF) in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Acta Med Iran 2016; 54(1):39-43. [Google Scholar]
20. Abbasi P, Kargar M, Doosti A, et al. Characterization of Shiga-toxin producing E.coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) using multiplex Real-Time PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA. Iran J Microbiol 2014; 6(3): 169-74. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
21. Mardaneh J, Soltan-Dallal MM. Isolation and Identification of E. cowanii from Powdered Infant Formula in NICU and Determination of Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Isolates. Iran J Pediatr 2014; 24(3): 261-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
22. Anvarinejad M, Pouladfar GR, Pourabbas B, et al. Detection of Salmonella spp. with the BACTEC 9240 Automated Blood Culture System in 2008-2014 in Southern Iran (Shiraz): Biogrouping, MIC, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Isolates. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2016; 9(4): e26505. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
23. Mardaneh J, Soltan Dallal MM, Taheripoor M, et al. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Tatumella ptyseos Strains Isolated From Powdered Infant Formula Milk Consumed in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: First Report From Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014; 7(6): e10608. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
24. Anvarinejad M, Amin Shahidi M, Pouladfar GR, et al. Campylobacter jejuni Bacteremia in a Patient With Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016; 18(6): e23992. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
25. Mardaneh J, Dallal MM. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of Pantoea (Enterobacter) agglomerans isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk (PIF) in NICU ward: First report from Iran. Iran J Microbiol 2013; 5(3): 263-7. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]
26. Mardaneh J, Soltan Dallal MS, TaheriPoor M, et al. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward. Iran South Med J 2014; 17(5): 907-15. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
27. Mardaneh J, Soltan Dallal M, Taheri Poor M. Isolation and determination antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Enterobacter amnigenus biogroup 1 strains isolated from consumed powdered infant formula milk in NICU ward. Iran South Med J 2015; 18(1): 46-53. (Persian) [Google Scholar]
Soltan Dallal M M, Nezamabadi S, Sharifi Yazdi M, Mardaneh J, Taheripoor M. To Determine the Frequency of Bacillus cereus in Powdered Milk Infant Formula Consuming in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Tehran Hospitals in 2013-14. Iran South Med J. 2017; 19 (6) :982-988 URL: http://ismj.bpums.ac.ir/article-1-846-en.html